Coffee and Health

health and coffee

Coffee is a very popular drink around the world. About 50% of people in the US drink it regularly, averaging about 3 cups per day. A lot of people have asked me about coffee and health. Since there is a lot to be said on the subject, I will split the information up into two separate articles. Here is the first part.

Beyond Caffeine

While caffeine is the major active ingredient in regular coffee, there are many other compounds in coffee that affect our body. Caffeine definitely has an effect on our health and well-being, but coffee is not the only source of caffeine. Therefore I will cover caffeine and its effects on health separately (second part).

This article will explore coffee and its effects on our health. Unless otherwise stated, this includes caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee alike.

Coffee and type II diabetes

In the past couple of years there has been some interesting evidence suggesting that long term coffee consumption lowers the risk for type II diabetes. A substance called chlorogenic acid is most likely responsible for this. It is an antioxidant that can counteract some of the oxidative damage that increases the risk for insulin resistance and diabetes.

Chlorogenic acid improves glucose control

Additionally, chlorogenic acid enhances the glucose uptake in your intestine and inhibits the glucose-6-phosphatase system. Don’t worry if you have no idea what that means — what is important is tat this substance can enhance your glucose control and therefore prevent disease.

Choose decaf coffee

Decaffeinated coffee is better than caffeinated one in this case. Caffeine has the opposite effect and impairs your glucose metabolism. It makes it so that your muscles have a harder time taking up the glucose, leaving it in your blood for longer…

Coffee and heart disease

So far there are no studies that show a direct correlation between coffee intake and heart disease. This means that no studies have shown that people who drink more/less coffee somehow have more strokes, heart attacks etc.

Increase in heart disease risk factors

But we do know that certain substances in coffee increase heart disease risk factors, such as high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. Two substances in particular, kaweol and cafestol, have been shown to raise serum cholesterol levels and triglycerides.

Differences in coffee

Kaweol and cafestol are contained in the oil of the coffee bean and can be filtered out. Unfiltered coffees such as French press, Scandinavian, Turkish and Greek style coffee have the highest levels of them, while most filtered coffee contains negligible amounts.

Case study

In one study, participants drank about 5 cups of brewed coffee everyday. Within less than a month their cholesterol levels rose on average by 25 mg/dL (0.65 mmol/L) and their triglycerides rose by 27 mg/dL (0.30 mmol/L). In another study, where participants drank even more coffee, the cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels increased 50.2% and 87% respectively.

Coffee and cancer

Cancer preventive

Even though kaweol and cafestol increase heart disease risk factors, they have also been shown to be anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic. Again kaweol and cafestol are only present at significant levels in brewed (not filtered) coffee.

Cancer causing

Through the high heat of roasting, several carcinogenic substances are created. The longer and darker the roast, the greater the number of carcinogens present in the coffee. While kaweol and cafestol act as antioxidants, facilitating the removal of carcinogens, their amounts are significantly reduced during the roasting process.

Which one is it!?

You might wonder whether this means that coffee is good or bad for cancer. This is hard to answer. Not only does it depend on the antioxidant levels in the coffee (dependent on roasting, filtering etc.) but it also depends on the cancer. There have been studies showing both beneficial and adverse effect of coffee on colon cancer, but for the most part there is no good evidence which suggests that coffee increases cancer.

However, coffee consumption has been associated with a beneficial effect on liver cancer and cirrhosis.

Coffee and gastric/esophageal health

Coffee does a variety of things which have en effect on our stomach and esophagus. Some of the effects are due to caffeine and are therefore covered in the next post.

Coffee increases stomach acid

Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee increase the production of stomach acid. Interestingly, decaffeinated coffee does so at a greater level. Increased levels of stomach acid can lead to a variety of problems. It can increase symptoms of peptic ulcers, erosive esophagitis and acid reflux. If you suffer from heartburn for example it is probably a good idea to eliminate coffee from your diet.

Coffee and intestinal health

As mentioned above, coffee increases the production of stomach acid. Coffee also makes it so that your stomach contents leave the stomach more quickly. The stomach itself has ways of protecting itself from the irritating acid. Once the acid goes into the intestine it needs to be neutralized by bicarbonate from the pancreas. This takes some time and when there is too much acid (due to coffee for example) the acid can potentially damage the intestinal walls.

IBS, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

While this might not be a problem for some people, it is most likely a problem for people who have already damaged or highly sensitive intestines. This includes people with IBS, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Laxative effect of coffee

Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee alike can have a laxative effect in susceptible individuals. Just four minutes after coffee consumption your body can be stimulated to “let go” whether your stool is ready or not. This can lead to diarrhea and loose stools. This is obviously, not only uncomfortable but can lead to water and nutrient loss. Your body needs time reabsorb some water and nutrients from your stool before releasing it… this does not give it time to do so.

Did you know… ?

There is a positive relationship between smoking and drinking coffee. This link has been studied and part of it is due to psychological factors: some people tend to be more susceptible to addictions. Also, nicotine makes caffeine less “effective”. Unfortunately, smoking and drinking coffee is a bad combo for the heart. The negative effects (stiffening of the arteries etc.) of both behaviors combined is worse than simply adding the negative effect of both of them…

Coffee and nutrients

Reduced zinc absorption

Coffee contains substances that reduce the absorption of zinc from foods. These substances are reduced by roasting but still present. Decaffeinated coffee is somewhat better since caffeine also inhibits zinc absorption.

Reduced Iron absorption

Coffee also reduces the absorption of one type of iron: nonheme iron. This is the iron that is found in plant and dairy sources, versus the more readily absorbed heme iron found in meat.

When coffee is consumed one hour before the meal, there is no reduction in absorption. However, if coffee is consumed during or one hour after the meal, iron absorption is reduced by about 39% (by one cup of coffee). The more coffee you drink before or after the meal, the less iron gets absorbed.

Did you know… ?

Coffee is not the only beverage that reduces iron absorption. Tea and red wine reduce iron absorption even more! A lot of people get plenty of iron (even vegetarians and vegans), but if you suffer from low iron levels it is probably a good idea not to consume these beverages with or after your meal — wait at least two hours.


Once again, coffee is a great example of a food that can be perfectly healthy for one person but harmful to another person. There are benefits and risks involved with various foods and it is important to make decisions based on your body (current condition, family history etc.). Keep in mind that this discussion of coffee is not conclusive, the effects of caffeine on health are substantial and were not considered in this article.

General advice

If you suffer from heartburn or some of the other listed gasrointestinal problems you could give up coffee for three to six months and see if any symptoms improve.

If you have problems with sugar metabolism (insulin resistance, diabetes or low glucose tolerance) you could try to switch to decaffeinated coffee and see if it makes any difference.

Non coffee drinkers

For all non-coffee drinkers: I don’t think that the non-caffeine related potential benefits of drinking coffee justify starting to drink coffee. There are many other ways to get antioxidants, without some of the risks involved in drinking coffee. However, if you have poor blood sugar control or diabetes you could try to add decaffeinated coffee to your diet, as mentioned above.

Did you know… ?

Researchers have found that simply smelling coffee aroma changes the gene expression in the brain to reduce stress that is related to sleep-deprivation.

Coffee drinkers

For coffee drinkers: depending on what kind of coffee you drink (decaffeinated vs. caffeinated etc.) you should wait to read part two of this article, where I will talk about caffeine. I don’t think that you should give up coffee if it gives you a lot of pleasure, but you might consider switching to another type of coffee or reducing the amount you drink. It is probably best to consume coffee (like most things) in moderation and limit its consumption to about two cups a day.

Research papers

All the information in this article comes from scientific studies. Since there are close to a hundred research papers that I could have cited in this post, I left the sources out completely. If you are interested in reading any of the papers, PLEASE email me and I can point you in the right direction.

I hope that this article was helpful to you. Due to the vast amount of complex information involved in this post a lot of the explanations are short or non-existent. Please let me know if you have any more questions!

Thanks to my readers

This article was a request from some of you. I want to thank you for trusting my knowledge and asking me such great questions! Please, feel free to email me if there is something you want me to cover or if you have a question. It can be about cooking, nutrition or personal.

– Christina


Please know that I am not a medical doctor and that my advice is not meant to diagnose or treat any disease. All the information is based on my understanding and interpretation of science and various research papers.

Let me know…

Do you drink coffee? If so, what kind? Decaf, filtered etc.


  1. all useful, and will definitely be used as excuses in my next coffee binge……

  2. Jenn says:

    Wow I’m impressed. I always swore to my husband I wouldn’t drink coffee. Well never say never. Now I LOOOOVVEEEE my morning cup of dark black coffee. I keep thinking I might try to stop but I simply enjoy it so much. (Sigh.)

    • haha Unless you suffer any negative consequences from it, you should keep drinking it then!

      Personally, coffee is not kind to me. Coffee HATES me! haha I used to drink about one cup in the morning every day. But it made me so anxious and nervous, not awake… And then when I stopped I had terrible withdrawal symptoms. I could not even leave the house I was so depressed. Every time I just try to have one sip now I get the worst stomach ache for hours. The decision is easy for me: Stomach ache or no stomach ache?

  3. Laura Tucker says:

    Christina…I try really hard not to comment too often on your posts because as your proud (bragging) mother-in-law I have no credibility…but I can’t help myself. This post is the best compilation of coffee-health related issues I’ve read anywhere. As you know, I’m a coffee lover – but Jim keeps me in line by rationing my 2 cups. I’m thinking because he roasts his own beans, (and usually a light roast at that) they have fewer of carcinogens?…(yay us!) How did you take that gorgeous photo of coffee when you don’t drink it? Did it smell good :-)

    • Haha no worries, I LOVE comments!

      Yes, the less you roast it the less carcinogens the coffee contains. Some antioxidants also decrease with roasting (kaweol and cafestol). But you drink filtered coffee anyway right? They get filtered out. In some ways it is good since they increase heart disease risk factors, but on the other hand they are antioxidants and would counteract some of the effects of the carcinogens. I would just not worry too much about it and try to reduce carcinogens in other foods, where it is easy. Also just eat more antioxidants form other food sources.

      The second part where I will talk about caffeine will be coming up soon. It is also important to consider that, since caffeine has major effects on the body. The article will probably be equally long, if not longer…

      Oh, the picture was not taken by me. It is from a stock photography site. That would have been too much trouble to go through! haha

  4. Hi there. Thanks for this wonderful article. I’m a coffee lover and our family history shows we are also prone to have diabetes . Well, at least here, you indicated that “coffee consumption lowers the risk for type II diabetes”. Great post.

    • Hi Samantha and welcome! Thanks for your nice comment!

      I am sorry about the diabetes in your family! Luckily there is a lot you can do to manage it well. I feel very strongly about the subject, since my husband shows early signs of insulin resistance… I guess that is a good reason to drink some coffee. Just make sure it is decaf, since caffeine has the opposite effect. Of course, limit all other sources of caffeine as well. Glad you liked the post!

  5. Paula says:

    So much helpful information, thank you for putting all that together! I drink an organic, caffienated coffee. I either brew or french press it and have about one, 8-10 oz. cup maybe 3-6 days a week. I have cut that down from the time I was in school and working at Starbucks :)

    • You are welcome! Working on part two right now. That should take a while.

      Oh working at Starbucks… I wonder how much coffee the employees drink with all the discounts. haha

  6. What an awesome post. I drink 2 cups (normal sized from my house) a day but I brew my coffee WEAK! I use about 1 scoop for 2 cups and my husband swears I am just drinking coffee flavored water! haha! I love the way strong coffee smells but don’t like the taste!

  7. Carolin says:

    Coffee.. i have this weird love/hate relationship with coffee, I get really nervous and shaky when I drink it, and when I stop I get headaches(withdrawals ha) and everytime when I don’t drink it for a while I forget how it makes me feel and I crave it and think it wakes me up! I just can’t keep my hands of it! Plus I probably shouldn’t drink it because I have really bad stomach aches and digestion.. and I was never sure if it helps to digest or not (you know the whole espresso-after-a-meal-helps-to-digest-thing)
    very interesting information, thanks! But sad that its not really in favor of coffee :(
    Question: you talked about how it decreases iron absorption, has this anything to do with the iron in the hemoglobin? because I’m taking iron pills because of low iron in my blood which makes me so tired.. does coffee have any affects on this?

    • Hi Carolin. It sounds like you would be better off just stopping it completely. I was the same way… It made me really nervous and shaky, even just one cup. And the withdrawal symptoms are normal. They can get a lot worse… I think it is a little scary to be so dependent on a substance that when you don’t consume it you feel that bad… but that is just me.

      More importantly if you suffer from stomach aches you should definitely not drink it. It helped me so much to give it up! And it only “helps” digestion because it increases your stomach acid. If you have problem with digestion there are plenty of other things you can do to help that, without negative side effects.

      Yes the iron that you absorb from food (or not absorb ;) ) is the one that affects the iron in your body, including in your hemoglobin. That would be another reason for you not to drink coffee. Obviously your iron count is closely tied to your diet and there are many things you should consider in your diet. I can make you a little summary if you want to help with the iron.

      Not only can coffee make you tired since it might hinder iron absorption, but the caffeine in the coffee directly affects your brain chemicals that regulate alertness and wakefulness. So it is easy to see how “screwing” with this balance can make you more tired, even though caffeine is a stimulant. You are maybe more dependent on the caffeine to make you awake and when you don’t drink it regularly you feel tired easily. But of course, that is just one factor, tiredness has to do with general diet, exercise, sleep or a unrelated disease.

      We can talk about this more in private if you want!

  8. I love coffee, but I know that it’s best if I consume it in moderation… :) Great info. I love that you point out that different people have different reactions and that coffee can be beneficial for some things and harmful for other conditions. Great job!

    • Thank you so much Andrea! Glad you liked the post. I always want to point out how everyone is different, so important. For me, coffee is definitely not good. I get the worst stomach aches and even a tiny bit makes me so nervous and anxious.

  9. brittany says:

    wow thanks for the post – very informative and well done. I have recently switched to decaf and only on occasion bc I keep finding different research and I finally decided to just play it safe.

    • Glad you liked it Brittany! Yes, I guess the next post might feature some of that research you are referring to. Caffeine can definitely be problematic for some people.

  10. I really enjoyed reading this article even though I don’t drink coffee – only use for coffee mousse :-)

  11. Ameena says:

    I am not a big coffee drinker either…just some decaf here and there. But this is great info!

    I love looking at your site because of your great design. Makes me feel like I’m reading Real Simple!!

  12. coco says:

    i can totally see the laxative effect of caffeine, which I use when i don’t feel like going.
    sometimes after I drink more than I usually drink, I feel my heart rate beats up, is that common? is that a symptom of overdose?

    i’m so looking forward to read the part II.

    • The increased heart rate can be due to several things. If you drink caffeinated coffee and drink more than usual I would say that is the main reason for your increased HR. Caffeine is a stimulant and some people are more sensitive to it than others. I for example get very nervous and anxious (increased HR goes along with that) if I just have a tiny bit. So yes it is probably “normal”. However, having an increased HR is neither comfortable nor healthy (depends also how high it goes…) So of course, you should try to avoid it.

      Here are some other possibilities for increased HR. Increased HR after eating or consuming a beverage often indicates a food intolerance. Some people get it after drinking alcohol or drinking processed beverages. This is a good, easy trick to maybe find out more about what chemicals you are sensitive to. If your HR consistently increases after you consume something you might be sensitive to it and should look further into it. But since it only happens to you when you drink too much, I would guess it is probably the caffeine. Try decaf and see if it helps.

      Also, it is normal that HR increases after eating or drinking some things. There will be increased blood flow to your stomach so that you can digest the food and this also increases your HR slightly.

      Hope this helped! The next part will probably also answer some questions about the increased HR!

  13. Jessica says:

    Good post. I drink 2 cups per day, brewed at home, organic, 1/2 decaf, 1/2 regular caffeinated.

  14. Mae @ OhhMay says:

    This was a very interesting post! I do really enjoy a cup of 1/2 caffinated French press in the morning or a decaf espresso while I’m relaxing at night. I try to limit myself to 3-4 cups toatal per week, and alternate it with tea. Some mornings I have green tea, and the mornings I have more time I drink coffee.
    I do love the crunch of coffee beans, and I put them on my smoothies. Do you know if this is dangerous to your health? I’m going to try to kick the habit once all my whole beans are gone. ;-)
    I have IBS but I find that when I’m in the…um… “c” phase, it really helps to have a cup of brewed coffee. It’s much less miserable than being uncomfortable for several days in a row. I think it’s important for people with IBS to learn how to read their body. I can tell now what days my stomach will be sensitive, and what days I don’t have to worry.

    Such a great post! Thank you for it!

    • Thank you May! You are welcome!

      About eating the coffee beans. You can probably imagine that since you get the whole bean and not just what will dissolve in the water, you get more caffeine this way and more of the other substances in coffee… good and bad. That means it is a lot easier to get an overdose of caffeine this way. Depending on how sensitive you are to caffeine it can have very unpleasant side effects. And if you have high blood pressure or other heart disease it can certainly be dangerous. Since I assume the beans are roasted, it also means you get more carcinogens, but that is only dangerous in that, the more carcinogens you eat the more risk you have of it doing some damage to your body and we eat them all the time… so balance is key here.

      Another thing that comes to mind is appendicitis. Since the coffee beans are pretty hard I could imagine that unless you chew them well they could get stuck in your appendix. But of course that is a very very small risk.

      I suffer from IBS too. Have for as long as I can remember. :( For me coffee is terrible. No exceptions. I used to drink a little every day and my stomach was ok (I was not very aware of my IBS then). But as soon as I stopped I could not tolerate even the smallest sip anymore. I get the WORST stomach aches that last the whole day. I can’t even gt out of bed… Yes, it can help with constipation, but personally I prefer to manage and help that in other ways. I am also terribly sensitive to caffeine (anxiety and nervousness) and stay away from that.

      • Mae says:

        I love the caffeine in a cup of green tea- it’s the perfect amount to wake me up but not give me the jitters. I usually put about 6-8 beans on my smoothies, and they don’t usually bother my stomach.
        Have you ever noticed that you can tolerate things in the morning better than any other time? I get horrible stomach aches when I eat flax seeds or anything with psyllium husk late in the day, but if I have flax with breakfast I’m fine! Weird!

  15. Wow, good info. I’m not a coffee drinker, but have definitely had blood sugar problems. I’ll keep the decaf in mind…who knows, maybe it’ll help! Thanks!

    • Thank you! Sorry about your blood sugar. But, at least you are aware of it! I think that blood sugar is something that a lot of people don’t consider enough in nutrition. People think that only diabetics have to worry about that. Well, how did the majority get diabetes in the first place?! It is a topic I care very much about and that is why all my recipes show the glycemic load. I will definitely have posts that deal with blood sugar etc. in the future! I would be interested to see if the decaf coffee makes a difference for you. My husband and I are doing a lot of blood sugar experiments these days, but I can’t drink it because of IBS and he hates the taste… so no decaf experiments for us.

      • I saw in one of the comments that you addressed a low iron problem. I think this is also something I deal with…is it necessary to take iron supplements, do you think, or can this be corrected with the right foods? I take a whole-food based iron supplement now, but I love having food be my medicine as often as possible!

        • Do you know from a blood test that you have a low iron count? Or do you just have symptoms that make you wonder whether or not you have enough?

          There is definitely a lot you can do with diet to help boost your iron count. But it is not as simple as eating foods that are high in iron. Iron can be tricky since we tend to not absorb a lot of what is in the food. So you have to consider how much you eat of what kind of foods, how you prepare them and what you eat them with…

          Have you noticed an improvement since taking the supplement (blood count or symptoms)?

          If you want more specific help with this, please feel free to email me!

  16. Michelle says:

    This was such a thorough and informative post! You answered so many questions that I had about coffee. It’s kind of frustrating that there are so many conflicting studies about it, though. You wonder if the negative and benefits just zero themselves out, hah. Nonetheless, I’m totally looking forward to your second post! Keep up the amazing research!

    • Hi Michelle and thanks for stopping by!

      So glad you liked the post! About conflicting information… I think that when you actually really look at the studies they are a lot less conflicting than what it might look like. A lot of the conflicting studies in general are epidemiological studies. And these are tricky. I have seen so many terribly conducted studies… The sample size too small, overlooking other factors etc. I am sure you can imagine how it would be hard to find a large group of people who pretty much have the same lifestyle and only differ in exactly one thing: coffee consumption for example. Also, a lot of times the researchers are not statisticians and interpret things in a funny way. That is why I like to read studies myself and think critically about what the results really mean. Animals studies are usually much clearer and of course clinical trials are also good. But there can always be problems. I think most of the things I mentioned in this article are pretty clear. The research is not conflicting, but of course it is never proven either. I think cancer is probably the most difficult issue, since you can never say this “causes” cancer. It is just too complex, too many factors affect it. But we do know from in vitro studies (in tubes) what chemicals make tumor cells grow and have what kind of effect on our gene expression etc. Ultimately with cancer especially it is all about reducing the risk. If there is something that is bad in terms of cancer in vitro and especially animals, you should try to limit is as much as possible. I think the “zeroing” itself out only works if we are talking about the same “problem”. If something oxidizes and something else is an antioxidant they certainly have the opposite effect on each other…

  17. Kristie says:

    Loving this post since I’m definitely loving my coffee (and just finished drinking a mug as I was reading this :)). There is SO much back and forth info about benefits versus harms of coffee and caffeine so thanks for summing some of it up! I never really know what to believe but I don’t plan on giving up my habit anytime soon. I have been a lot more moderate with my coffee drinking than I used to though, I try to stick with much smaller mugs and chug it down less frequently. I’ve suffered from coffee-related stomach pains before which isn’t all that fun but I find it happens less now that I drink less coffee overall.
    Love that tidbit about the coffee aroma too, good to know! I LOVE the smell of coffee. They should come out with coffee scents marketed as stress reducers, someone could probably make a buck or two off of that :)

    • Scaling back was probably a smart move, good thing it helped with your stomach pain. The stomach aches I got from coffee were some of the worst… and I am an expert in stomach aches. haha

      I was looking at some other articles on coffee after I wrote this to see what is out there. And I got really irritated. Most people just mention the antioxidants… so therefore it is healthy I guess. And then they talk a little bit about some of the negative things that are mostly related to caffeine. That kind of information just does not help very much! It is never as easy as “healthy” or “unhealthy”. If you write an article about whether or not it is healthy you are simply approaching it the wrong way and I think that is why it confuses people. They ask: “Well is it good now or bad?!” It is so much easier to just look at all the facts and see what applies to one person. But I understand that a lot of people are just looking for a quick and easy answer.

      Well, funny that you mention it, but I used to have this alarm clock that slowly gets brighter to wake you up “naturally”. You could also fill it with some coffee gel and once it warmed up, the smell of coffee would slowly develop and help you wake up. And then there were also noises of birds singing etc. It was quite the alarm clock!

  18. kate says:

    Im not a coffee drinker. I love the taste & the idea of it – but I hate the thought of being dependent on something! I hope to stay an anti-coffee addict for as long as possible!

  19. Thanks for the info! I somehow made it through college without coffee. Maybe the chocolate is what carried me through.

    See you soon!

  20. tom says:

    i always love coffee. i remember an article where it says that coffee is an anti-oxidant.

  21. Runner Girl says:

    I’ve been told that Caffeine reduces that absorption of vitamins (calcium, iron, etc). If I eat a salad for lunch, how long should I wait before I drink a coffee?

    • The polyphenols and tannins in coffee (and tea) do bind to iron and therefore decrease absorption. Some people suggest that you avoid drinking these beverages during meal time, if you have a problem with your iron levels. Depending on the size of the meal and your digestion rate… your stomach should be empty after 2-4 hours.

      Caffeine might also inhibit absorption of some minerals and vitamins. The mechanisms are not perfectly clear yet. Maybe it is because caffeine increases urination and you lose more vitamins and minerals from your system. In general, I would not worry about it if your caffeine consumption is moderate, you eat plenty of healthy foods and don’t have caffeine with every single meal.

  22. Faby says:

    This is such an informative article, thanks!!

  23. Lavonia Harris Gansworth says:

    I Read this aticle because i’m lookin’ into lowerin; my iron, or gettin; down as well as i can cause i had so muchtrouble with phlipotomie, you see my iro jets all the way up to 5000 yep scard me too, they gotit down to 3000 and thee was so many appointments and rides out do far and back by strbgers, my anxiety just sky rocketed, so i quit all dactors, for the winter, i was ready to crack so i’ll start allthis over when i can find a good doctor here where i live, there;s a hospitol, with a ramp filled with drs noreason for mr to go so far!! Anyway Thankyou for all your great articles they;ve helped me alot! Keep them coming, bless you and good luck~

  24. Asma says:

    Hi there
    I have stomach pain for few weeks now and I get really bad pain randomly … There is no known source for the pain and every time is for a different reason … However the smell of coffee triggers me so bad … I’m a barista and my job is to make coffee but just the smell of it gives me a bad stomach pain :( is this common ?

  25. Rona says:

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  26. te nero says:

    I was wondering if you ever considered changing the layout of your blog?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got
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    with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having
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